Queries

Simple SQL statements

In many cases, the SQL query is intended to be executed only once, which means that statement parsing and execution can go together. The session class provides a special once member, which triggers parsing and execution of such one-time statements:

sql.once << "drop table persons";

For shorter syntax, the following form is also allowed:

sql << "drop table persons";

The IOStream-like interface is exactly what it looks like, so that the statement text can be composed of many parts, involving anything that is streamable (including custom classes, if they have appropriate operator<<):

string tableName = "persons";
sql << "drop table " << tableName;

int id = 123;
sql << "delete from companies where id = " << id;

Query transformation

In SOCI 3.2.0, query transformation mechanism was introduced.

Query transformation is specified as user-defined unary function or callable function object with input parameter of type std::string which returns object of type std::string as well.

The query transformation function is registered for current database session using dedicated session::set_query_transformation method. Then, the transformation function is called with query string as argument just before the query is sent to database backend for execution or for preparation.

For one-time statements, query transformation is performed before each execution of statement. For prepared statements, query is transformed only once, before preparation, regardless how many times it is executed.

A few short examples how to use query transformation:

std::string less_than_ten(std::string query)
{
    return query + " WHERE price < 10";
}

session sql(postgresql, "dbname=mydb");
sql.set_query_transformation(less_than_ten);
sql << "DELETE FROM item";
struct order : std::unary_function<std::string, std::string&gt;
{
    order(std::string const&amp; by) : by_(by) {}

    result_type operator()(argument_type query) const
    {
        return query + " ORDER BY " + by_;
    }

    std::string by_;
};

char const* query = "SELECT * FROM product";
sql.set_query_transformation(order("price");
sql << query;
sql.set_query_transformation(order("id");
sql << query;
std::string dep = "sales";
sql.set_query_transformation(
    [&dep](std::string const&amp; query) {
        return query + " WHERE department = '" + dep + "'";
});
sql << "SELECT * FROM employee";

Query transformations enable users with simple mechanism to apply extra requirements to or interact with SQL statement being executed and that is without changing the SQL statement itself which may be passed from different parts of application.

For example, the query transformation may be used to: