PostgreSQL Backend Reference
SOCI backend for accessing PostgreSQL database.
The SOCI PostgreSQL backend is supported for use with PostgreSQL >= 7.3, although versions older than 8.0 will suffer from limited feature support. See below for details.
|9.6||Windows Server 2016||MSVC++ 14.1|
|9.4||Windows Server 2012 R2||MSVC++ 14.0|
|9.4||Windows Server 2012 R2||MSVC++ 12.0|
|9.4||Windows Server 2012 R2||MSVC++ 11.0|
|9.4||Windows Server 2012 R2||Mingw-w64/GCC 4.8|
|9.3||Ubuntu 12.04||g++ 4.6.3|
|9.0||Mac OS X 10.6.6||g++ 4.2|
|8.4||FreeBSD 8.2||g++ 4.1|
|8.4||Debian 6||g++ 4.3|
|8.4||RedHat 5||g++ 4.3|
Required Client Libraries
The SOCI PostgreSQL backend requires PostgreSQL's
libpq client library.
Note that the SOCI library itself depends also on
libdl, so the minimum set of libraries needed to compile a basic client program is:
-lsoci_core -lsoci_postgresql -ldl -lpq
Connecting to the Database
To establish a connection to the PostgreSQL database, create a
session object using the
postgresql backend factory together with a connection string:
session sql(postgresql, "dbname=mydatabase"); // or: session sql("postgresql", "dbname=mydatabase"); // or: session sql("postgresql://dbname=mydatabase");
The set of parameters used in the connection string for PostgreSQL is the same as accepted by the
[PQconnectdb](http://www.postgresql.org/docs/8.3/interactive/libpq.html#LIBPQ-CONNECT) function from the
In addition to standard PostgreSQL connection parameters, the following can be set:
session sql(postgresql, "dbname=mydatabase singlerows=true");
singlerows parameter is set to
yes, then queries will be executed in the single-row mode, which prevents the client library from loading full query result set into memory and instead fetches rows one by one, as they are requested by the statement's fetch() function. This mode can be of interest to those users who want to make their client applications more responsive (with more fine-grained operation) by avoiding potentially long blocking times when complete query results are loaded to client's memory.
Note that in the single-row operation:
- bulk queries are not supported, and
- in order to fulfill the expectations of the underlying client library, the complete rowset has to be exhausted before executing further queries on the same session.
Also please note that single rows mode requires PostgreSQL 9 or later, both at
compile- and run-time. If you need to support earlier versions of PostgreSQL,
you can define
SOCI_POSTGRESQL_NOSINLGEROWMODE when building the library to
Once you have created a
session object as shown above, you can use it to access the database, for example:
int count; sql << "select count(*) from invoices", into(count);
(See the exchanging data documentation for general information on using the
SOCI Feature Support
The PostgreSQL backend supports the use of the SOCI
row class, which facilitates retrieval of data whose type is not known at compile time.
row::get<T>(), the type you should pass as
T depends upon the underlying database type. For the PostgreSQL backend, this type mapping is:
|PostgreSQL Data Type||SOCI Data Type||
|numeric, real, double||dt_double||double|
|boolean, smallint, integer||dt_integer||int|
|char, varchar, text, cstring, bpchar||dt_string||std::string|
|abstime, reltime, date, time, timestamp, timestamptz, timetz||dt_date||std::tm|
(See the dynamic resultset binding documentation for general information on using the
Binding by Name
int id = 7; sql << "select name from person where id = :id", use(id, "id")
Apart from the portable "colon-name" syntax above, which is achieved by rewriting the query string, the backend also supports the PostgreSQL native numbered syntax:
int i = 7; int j = 8; sql << "insert into t(x, y) values($1, $2)", use(i), use(j);
The use of native syntax is not recommended, but can be nevertheless imposed by switching off the query rewriting. This can be achieved by defining the macro
SOCI_POSTGRESQL_NOBINDBYNAME and it is actually necessary for PostgreSQL 7.3, in which case binding of use elements is not supported at all. See the Configuration options section for details.
The PostgreSQL backend has full support for SOCI's bulk operations interface.
Transactions are also fully supported by the PostgreSQL backend.
blob Data Type
The PostgreSQL backend supports working with data stored in columns of type Blob, via SOCI's blob class with the exception that trimming is not supported.
rowid Data Type
The concept of row identifier (OID in PostgreSQL) is supported via SOCI's rowid class.
Nested statements are not supported by PostgreSQL backend.
PostgreSQL stored procedures can be executed by using SOCI's procedure class.
Native API Access
SOCI provides access to underlying datbabase APIs via several
get_backend() functions, as described in the beyond SOCI documentation.
The PostgreSQL backend provides the following concrete classes for navite API access:
|Accessor Function||Concrete Class|
|session_backend * session::get_backend()||postgresql_session_backend|
|statement_backend * statement::get_backend()||postgresql_statement_backend|
|blob_backend * blob::get_backend()||postgresql_blob_backend|
|rowid_backend * rowid::get_backend()||postgresql_rowid_backend|
uuid Data Type
The PostgreSQL backend supports working with data stored in columns of type UUID via simple string operations. All string representations of UUID supported by PostgreSQL are accepted on input, the backend will return the standard
format of UUID on output. See the test
test_uuid_column_type_support for usage examples.
To support older PostgreSQL versions, the following configuration macros are recognized:
SOCI_POSTGRESQL_NOBINDBYNAME- switches off the query rewriting.
SOCI_POSTGRESQL_NOPARAMS- disables support for parameterized queries (binding of use elements),automatically imposes also the
SOCI_POSTGRESQL_NOBINDBYNAMEmacro. It is necessary for PostgreSQL 7.3.
SOCI_POSTGRESQL_NOPREPARE- disables support for separate query preparation, which in this backend is significant only in terms of optimization. It is necessary for PostgreSQL 7.3 and 7.4.
SOCI_POSTGRESQL_NOSINLGEROWMODE- disable single mode retrieving query results row-by-row. It is necessary for PostgreSQL prior to version 9.